TITLE: THE FACTS, GIMME JUST THE FACTS!!!
AUTHOR: V.Halsted, Lincoln Elementary, Woodburn, Oregon
GRADE LEVEL/SUBJECT: Appropriate for grades 2-6
Mathematics computation.
OVERVIEW: The teaching and learning of mathematics is
facilitated by the development of a definite task analysis.
Each skill builds upon and rests on the previous skills
learned. Therefore, knowing all multiplication facts will
help in the learning of subsequent skills in hard
multiplication,
division, fractions, etc.
PURPOSE: To help all students systematically learn their
times tables, teach the facts in this way:
ACTIVITIES AND PROCEDURES:
1. Check to see that all students know their
0's,1's,2's,5's,10's,11's--drill on these, have students all
say them orally, show students how to count 5's on their
fingers (hands-on)!!.After several days of practice, give a
2 or 3 minute timed test on these facts. Keep giving the
test, each day, until all students or most students pass.
Use a stop watch. As each child passes, you say their time.
They write down the time and each day, they try to beat
their old time, once they pass. If all students pass,
celebrate with treats, an extra recess, pop corn, etc. Keep
the papers of the students who pass, showing their best
times.
2. Teach the 3 times tables. Students use hands to count
out "0,3,6,9,12,15,18,21,24,27,30". Drill on these each day.
Students say the 3's when they come in to class, when
they go out from class, etc. THEY ALL CAN DO THIS.
3. Teach the 9 times tables. Make a set of HUGE hands, cut
from bendable poster board. Number the fingers on the hands,
from 1 to 10. Use these hands to show that, say 9x4, can be
visually seen by bending down the 4th finger and there you
have 3 and 6 fingers. Practice and drill on this. All kids
must do the finger bending with their own hands, too. In
this way, they learn that they always have their 9 times
tables with them!! Also, teach that, say, "9x7" starts with
a "6", "9x5" starts with a "4", etc. Teach that the 2
digits of the answers equal 9--example, 36=3+6, 45=4+5,
81=8+1, etc. DRILL DAILY!! Give a 3 and 9 times table timed
test. Make it a 2 or 3 minute test. (as previously done).
Students try to pass and then to beat their old score.
Partner up kids who pass with those who need to pass. Each
day have a "2-minute test your partner" time. Celebrate
if/when all pass. Recognize those students with the top
scores/fastest times with l00%,etc.
4 Teach the hardest fact of all:
7x6=42!!!!!!!!! Make a big glittery sign for this. Do
whatever is necessary to make kids aware of this fact.
5. Teach the facts that rhyme:
6x6=36....6x4=24 6x8=48
Sing them, rap them, say them, etc.
6. Teach these poems, which the kids love:
7x7 is 49, you are cool, you are fine!!!
8x8 is 64, close your mouth and shut the door!!!
(Some kids will make up their own poems!)
7. Teach "5,6,7,8"......56=7x8
8. Once students learn the 0's,1's,2's,5's,10's,11's,3's,and
9's, the only
facts left are:
4x4=16 6x6=36 7x7=49
4x6=24 6x7=42 7x8=56
4x7=28 6x8=48 8x8=64
4x8=32
Students have only 10 facts to learn!!! 7 of these facts
have raps, rhymes, etc. to facilitate learning. These 10
remaining facts go on flash cards. Each child has 2 sets of
cards -- one for home and one for school. Run these last
facts on construction paper. Kids put the answers LIGHTLY on
the back of each card. Check the cards to make sure the
correct answer has been written. Give each child an empty
audio cassette plastic box to hold the cards. Now PRACTICE,
PRACTICE, PRACTICE!!!
9. The ultimate activity is the 5 minute timed test. This
equals 80+ facts. When making this test, put the harder
facts near the top and make the last 2 rows easy rows. This
test is taken daily, with kids first passing the test (you
check the tests and announce those who passed the next day),
and then students try to beat their old scores (you read the
old score, at the end of test time and if the child has
passed that time, you collect their paper to be corrected).
Certificates and treats go out to students who pass the
test. Also, the top ten students with the fastest scores
should be recognized. The class goal is for all students to
pass this 5 minute timed test. This is a class goal, and
when all students pass, YOU CELEBRATE!! AS THE PROFESSIONAL,
YOU MAY DECIDE THAT EACH CHILD MUST PASS 100% OR 96% ETC.
TYING IT ALL TOGETHER:
There is a great deal of success built into this task
analysis for times tables. This entire process has been
used successfully with 3rd graders and 5th graders. Students
were able to learn hard multiplication, division and
fractions because they knew the facts!!!